1869 map of New Zealand’s Māori iwi & confiscated land

1869 map of iwi boundaries and confiscated land.
[Click to enlarge] “Sketch map of the North Island of New Zealand shewing native tribal boundaries, topographical features, confiscated lands, military and police stations, etc. 1869.” – Sir George Grey Special Collections, Auckland Libraries, NZ Map 471.
This 1869 map of New Zealand’s North Island shows Māori iwi (tribal) boundaries, confiscated land, location of armed police and military bases, and where gold was found.

It’s fascinating in many ways, not least because it shows the staggering amount of land confiscated in the Waikato – more than 1.2 million acres. The confiscations were made under the New Zealand Settlements Act 1863.

From a Museum of New Zealand: Te Papa Tongarewa entry on Māori land rights:

The Crown created various laws in the 1860s to allow it to take land. The New Zealand Settlements Act 1863 allowed it to confiscate the land of North Island iwi deemed to have rebelled against the Crown. The Public Works Act 1864 let it take land for roads, railways, and other public works.

The Native Land Court, established in 1865 (and renamed the Māori Land Court in 1954), encouraged Māori to sell land to private buyers. But the Crown remained the biggest purchaser. It on-sold most of its Māori land, often for a profit.

By 1939, almost 100 years after the Treaty was signed, Māori retained just 1 percent of the South Island and 9 percent of the North Island. Land losses continued as the 20th century progressed, again supported by legislation.

You might also be interested in:

Map of New Zealand’s Māori Iwi – evolvingnewsroom
The New Zealand Wars – Te Ara
1863 land confiscation law – nzhistory.net
Excerpts from James Belich’s TV series The New Zealand Wars – NZ On Screen
Books about the New Zealand Wars – Te Ara
Timeline of the New Zealand Wars – newzealandwars.co.nz
How to Add Macrons to Māori Words – evolvingnewsroom

 

Interactive map of global shipping routes

Kiln and the UCL Energy Institute have created shipmap.org, a fascinating interactive map that tracks global shipping for a year (2012).

Screengrab of shipmap.org
How the map looks with all the routes selected. Click on image to go to shipmap.org

Here’s how it works:

The merchant fleet is divided into five categories, each of which has a filter and a CO2 and freight counter for the hour shown on the clock:

  • Container (e.g. manufactured goods): number of container slots equivalent to 20 feet (i.e. a 40-foot container takes two slots)
  • Dry bulk (e.g. coal, aggregates): combined weight of cargo, fuel, water, provisions, passengers and crew a vessel can carry, measured in thousand tonnes
  • Tanker (e.g. oil, chemicals): same as dry bulk
  • Gas bulk (e.g. liquified natural gas): capacity for gases, measured in cubic metres
  • Vehicles (e.g. cars): same as dry bulk

If you’re interested in tracking ships around New Zealand (or anywhere, really), I can recommend marinetraffic.com. The website and the app are great.

You might also be interested in the arrival and departure of ships at New Zealand’s ports:

North Port (Marsden Point)
Ports of Auckland
Port of Tauranga
Port Nelson
Napier Port
Centre Port (Wellington)
Port Taranaki
Lyttleton
Port Otago
South Port (Bluff)

 

Maps show how transport shrinks the world

 

New Scientist has published some beautiful maps exploring which are the remotest places on earth – given how much international transport we have available to us.

“The maps are based on a model which calculated how long it would take to travel to the nearest city of 50,000 or more people by land or water. The model combines information on terrain and access to road, rail and river networks. It also considers how factors like altitude, steepness of terrain and hold-ups like border crossings slow travel.

Plotted onto a map, the results throw up surprises. First, less than 10% of the world’s land is more than 48 hours of ground-based travel from the nearest city. What’s more, many areas considered remote and inaccessible are not as far from civilisation as you might think. In the Amazon, for example, extensive river networks and an increasing number of roads mean that only 20% of the land is more than two days from a city – around the same proportion as Canada’s Quebec province.

This one shows roads around the world:

This one shows shipping routes:

And this one shows rivers:

More lovely maps here. H/T to Cliff Kuang at Fast Company.